Denk, W., Horstmann, H. 2004.
Serial Block-Face Scanning Electron Microscopy to Reconstruct Three-Dimensional Tissue Nanostructure
. PLoS Biology 329: 2(11). doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0020329
In order to analyze the synaptic connectivity, we first had to take the imaging of the retinal tissue. This is done using 3D electron microscope imaging. This article goes into the technology of the imaging, describing how the process reconstructs the 3D image and displays the cellular and organelle structure.
Firl, A., Ke, J.B., Zhang, L., Fuerst, P.G., Singer, J.H., Feller, M.B. 2015.
Elucidating the Role of AII Amacrine Cells in Glutamatergic Retinal Waves.
The Journal of Neuroscience 35(4): 1675-1686. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3291-14.2015
Much is unknown about the function of Amacrine Cells, which is the focus of the research. This article details a particular process in the neural pathway, giving evidence to the belief that Amacrine Cells play a key role in regulating the activity of visual stimuli being transmitted to the brain via the Bipolar pathway through Ganglion cells.
Mehta, B., Ke, J.B., et al. 2014.
Global Ca2+ Signaling Drives Ribbon-Independent Synaptic Transmission at Rod Bipolar Cell Synapses.
The Journal of Neuroscience 34(18): 6233-6244. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5324-13.2014
While mapping out the Retinal Neurons and marking where Synapses form between adjacent cells, one of the key identifiers of a synapse is the presence of a particular protein called a Ribbon. The Ribbon can help facilitate the vesicles carrying neurotransmitters being carried from one neuron to another. This article details the various mechanisms of synaptic transmission that is both dependent and independent of these Ribbon proteins.
Tian, M., Jarsky, T., Murphy, G.J., Rieke, F., Singer, J.H. 2010.
Voltage Gated Na Channels in AII Amacrine Cells Accelerate Scotopic Light Responses Mediated by Rod Bipolar Cell Pathway.
The Journal of Neuroscience 30(13): 4650-4659 doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4212-09.2010
As stated earlier, Amacrine cells are thought to play a key role in regulating signal transduction through the bipolar pathway. This article describes an experiment, which showed the mechanism by which voltage gated channels mediated and regulated the signal from the Rod Bipolar cells to the ganglion cells, which takes the signal to the brain. In this case it showed how at night the Amacrine cells increase the output of Rod Bipolar cells to the Ganglion cells, thus contributing to the process of night vision.