Family History - Arabian Peninsula

For most of the study period, Arabia has been, simply, the homeland and origin of the Arabs. If your ancestors lived there in 1900, they probably mostly lived there in 1. There are some caveats, however:

Following the Jewish and Bar Kochba rebellions in Judea in the 1st and 2nd centuries, many Jewish immigrants settled in Arabia. Jewish communities persisted in Yemen until recently. If your ancestors lived in Yemen in 1800 CE and were Jewish, their ancestors probably lived in Yemen in CE 500 but in Judea in CE 1.

During the early Middle Ages, Ethiopia ruled Yemen briefly. Moreover, there has been much commerce between Yemen and the Horn of Africa, especially in slaves taken in what today is southern Ethiopia, so that if your ancestors lived in Yemen in 1800 CE, some of their ancestors probably lived in the Horn of Africa - Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, and Djibouti - at earlier times

Arabia was largely unaffected by the immigrations and conquests that transformed the fertile crescent and Iran (Turkic peoples, crusaders, Mongols, etc.) During the 17th century, however, Hijaz, the province of Saudi Arabia bordering the Red Sea, became part of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Turks were an offshoot of the Central Asian Seljuk Turks, who ruled a small area in Northwest Anatolia. They managed to turn this into the nucleus of a great empire. Genetically, the Ottomans were not like their Central Asian Seljuk forebears, having intermarried with the local Greek-speaking Anatolian population. The Ottomans ruled a cosmopolitan Empire that encompassed Greece, Bulgaria, former Yugoslavia, Albania, Romania, and Hungary. The Ottomans had a practice of drafting non-Muslim children into public service, raising them, and training them for the army or for high administrative posts. Because of this, if your ancestors were aristocratic Hijazis in 1800 CE, their ancestors could be from anywhere in the Ottoman Empire in 1490 CE.