The Greatest Show on Earth: The Public and Biological Evolution I
American Exceptionalism is Not Always A Good Thing!
The above data is from the 2005 study by John Miller et al. As you can note, America ranks very far behind all other industrialized Western nations included, and just ahead of Turkey. Taking these data and plotting them against a measure of national wealth, we see that the US really is an outlier compared to other rich nations:
So why this discontinuity? And why would people reject evolution anyway, particular in nations with an excellent fossil record and easy access to information by almost everyone.
NOTE: This and the next lecture primarily examine American, Christian denial of evolution. But there are people who reject of evolutionary science from other nations and other religions, such as:
For instance, Judaic chronologies traditionally held that Earth, Life, and Humanity were created over the course of the six day "Creation Week" described in Genesis, and that this was roughly six thousand years ago. Their neighboring cultures (Egyptians, Babylonians, Greeks) thought that the Earth was created many 10s of thousands of years ago. Some (the Maya, for instance) had even longer time scales, and Hindu cosmologies suggesting an infinitely old, repeating Universe (with a present incarnation many many billions of years old.)
But many of these thought that the world was basically unchanged since the Dawn of Time, and did not consider any lineal connections of descent and ancestry among the species of the world.
Some philosophers suggested that it was non-divine processes to the worlds origin, and the possibility of transmutation. Among these were Anaximander of Miletus (610-546 BCE) and Titus Lucretius Carus (c. 99-c. 55 BCE).
During the early centuries of the Church, Christianity lived side-by-side with older pagan traditions of scholarship and research, exemplified by institutions such as the Library of Alexandria. Sometimes the relationship with non-Christian philosophers and thinkers was amicable, but sometimes less so. Among the philosophers of the early Christian Church was St. Augustine of Hippo (354-430 CE), who argued that God formed the Earth and Life from pre-existing matter, and suggested that the six-day Creation Week was metaphorical or allegorical rather than historical. (However, he was adamant about a 6000-year old Earth rather than the longer Greek or Babylonian chronology.) He argued in the De Genesi ad literal (1:20) that Christians should be willing to change their minds about the natural world in light of new evidence:
With the collapse of the Roman world scholarship in the West was preserved and developed mostly by the Catholic Church, and there mostly by the professionally-trained priesthood. These were among the few who had access to both the Scriptures and other religious writing and to the scholarship of the Greco-Roman thinkers. With the Protestant Reformation, however, the Bible was translated into the vernacular tongues of Europe, and now ordinary people (or at least ordinary literate people) with no particular training in philosophy, history, or other academic disciplines had access to Scripture. For many this might be the only book they ever read.
As a consequence, the Protestant Reformation saw a spread of literalist rather than allegorical interpretation of the Bible. Some of these literalist ideas made their way to the very highest levels of Protestant hierarchies (for instance, Anglican Bishop James Ussher's 1650 chronology of the world, dating Creation to the nightfall before October 23, 4004 BC.) That said, there were many thinkers who considered other possibilities.
During the Age of Enlightenment (18th and early 19th Centuries) there were many arguments for and against naturalistic views of how the Universe operates and came to be. For example, David Hume observed order arising from mindless mechanistic processes (snowflakes from water, crystals from solution, and so forth), and considered that an ordered world might likewise come out of similar type processes. In contrast, others argued that the apparent Design of the Universe implied a Designer. This was most famously (although not firstly) argued as the "Watchmaker Argument" of William Paley in his 1802 Natural Theology.
"Natural theology" was that branch of theology that attempted to understand the nature of the Divine not through revealed wisdom and scripture, but from study of the natural world. It had a long tradition in the West (e.g., medieval bestiaries, where the aspects of different animals were interpreted as moral lessons for Mankind.) Many of the early geologists and paleontologists were natural theologians: Linnaeus and Buckland and Agassiz and Lyell and others.
But these naturalists also had to accept their discoveries of Earth vastly ancient beyond the chronologies of the Bible or the Classical World, with changing environmental conditions and inhabited by succession after succession of different life forms. Two major potential solutions were developed (or expanded from earlier concepts) to harmonize the observations of the natural world with Scripture:
Of course, much of this came to a head with Darwin and Wallace's discovery of Natural Selection. They had discovered a mechanism to produce design without any need for outside influence: simply variation, heredity, and superfecundity.
The following is a dramatic recreation of the result of the publication of The Origin in Victorian England, from the 1978 BBC costume drama The Voyages of Charles Darwin. (The first two characters to show up are Sir Charles Lyell and Charles Darwin; other characters whom we have encountered in this course are Thomas Huxley and Sir Richard Owen):
As this shows, the basic arguments were already set forth. However, one important thing to show: although Bishop Samuel Wilberforce and Thomas Huxley do represent the points of view of many of the religious and scientific thinkers (respectively) of that time, these camps were not entirely unified. Some religious thinkers were very much in support of Darwin and Wallace's new ideas, and some scientists rejected evolution (and more the specific model of Natural Selection) at that time.
This sets the stage for the 20th and 21st Century American situation, and the rise of organized evolution deniers.
Among the peoples of this movement was Canadian George McCready Price, who published various books (such as The Fundamentals of Geology, arguing for Flood Geology (the idea that most geological strata and structures were laid down by Noah's Flood) and a Young (that is, 6000-year old) Earth. Price's book, and those like it, were used by the growing Fundamentalist movement to provide support for people who did not want the scientific understanding of an ancient Earth and evolving Life taught in schools.
In 1925 Tennessee passed the Butler Act, "AN ACT prohibiting the teachings of the Evolution Theory in all the Universities, and all other public schools of Tennessee, which are supported in whole or in part by the public school funds of the State, and to provide penalties for the violations thereof." Many other states followed suit, making the teaching of evolution illegal in the public schools. It was challenged later that year in the town of Dayton, where the ACLU financed a test case for this law (to which they objected). High school teacher John Thomas Scope was charged with teaching evolution, and the resultant Scopes monkey trial (technically State of Tennessess vs. John Thomas Scopes) made international news. It pitted two of the most famous lawyers of the early 20th Century (William Jennings Bryan for the prosecution, Clarence Darrow for the defense) against each other. Scopes was found guilty and fined $100, but it was overturned on a technicality (the jury, not the judge, should have set the fine!). The Butler Law remained on the books until 1967.
After embarrassment by the United States at the Soviet's early accomplishments in space travel (the Sputnik series; first manned space flight; etc.) in the 1950s, American educators sought to greatly increase the science component in its schools. But eventually the issue of Butler (and similar laws in other states) had to be dealt with. In many cases they were simply repealed. But in one situation, it went to the Supreme Court. This was the 1967 case Epperson vs. Arkansas, over a 1928 Butler-style law. Susan Epperson (high school biology teacher) filed suit over the constitutionality of this law. The Supreme Court found:
So prohibiting the teaching of evolution was out. In response, states began to propose "Equal Time" laws, which stated that schools had to teach Creationism (i.e., a purely supernatural view of the origin of Earth, Life & Humans) alongside scientific ones. This led to the case Daniel vs. Waters, where the US Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit argued Tennessee's "equal time" act, which had stated
The Court ruled that creationism--as inherently religious--was not objectively part of a secular program of education.
In response, "Creationism" evolved into "Creation Science". The idea was that by putting "Science" in the name it could now be taught as science. However, there was no actual change in content or evidence, just a rebranding. Groups to promote Creation Science were organized: the Institute for Creation Research (1972); Center for Scientific Creation (1980); Reasons to Believe (an Old Earth Creation group) (1986); and Answers in Genesis (1994).
The new Creation Science organizations helped promote a new series of "balanced treatment" laws, just like the old "equal time" Creation acts. One of these eventually resulted in the 1981 US Supreme Court case Edwards vs. Aguillard. The law in question was Louisiana's 1981 "Balanced Treatment of Creation-Science and Evolution-Science Act". The US Supreme Court found that
So Creation Science was out. It was rebranded again, and now called "Intelligent Design" or "ID" for short. This was an attempt to remove references to God and the Bible from materials promoting essentially the same arguments as before, in the hopes that in so doing it would not seem religious. However, despite what people in some intellectual circles think, it was just exactly the same idea as before. For example, the standard ID textbook Of Pandas and People states that "Intelligent design means that various forms of life began abruptly through an intelligent agency, with their distinctive features already intact. Fish with fins and scales, birds with feathers, beaks, wings, etc." In fact, study shows the systematic replacement of "Creation" with "intelligent design" and "creationist" with "design proponent" over the earlier editions of the same book that became retitled Of Pandas and People:
Indeed, during the Dover trial (see below) the speciation event was captured in mid-transformation: a case where the editors of a draft of Of Pandas and Peoples accidentally inserted "design proponents" in the middle of the word "creationist" rather than just replacing it!
Upper edition is the earlier draft, lower one has the "transitional form".
The predominant organization promoting ID is The Discovery Institute (founded in 1990), which promotes their "Wedge strategy" to "to defeat scientific materialism and its destructive moral, cultural, and political legacies” and "to replace materialistic explanations with the theistic understanding that nature and human beings are created by God".
The ID proponents organized new sets of campaigns for laws around the country in the 1990s, such as "Teach the Controversy" and "Critical Analysis of Evolution" (basically new incarnations of "equal time" or "balanced treatment"). ID brought in new thinkers promoting particular new approaches, such as Michael Behe's Irreducible Complexity and William Dembski's Specified Complexity. We will examine these particular arguments next lecture.
With the backing of the Discovery Institute, then-Pensylvannia Senator Rick Santorum proposed the Santorum Amendment to the "No Child Left Behind" law. This was a law to promote the teaching of ID as an alternative to evolution, and to label evolution as a "theory in crisis". The amendment was not included in the federal law, but was modified to support similar measures within his home state.
This led to the adoption by the school board of Dover, PA of a statement to be read in all classes where evolution was taught:
Because Darwin’s Theory is a theory, it continues to be tested as new evidence is discovered. The Theory is not a fact. Gaps in the Theory exist for which there is no evidence. A theory is defined as a well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations.
Intelligent Design is an explanation of the origin of life that differs from Darwin's view. The reference book, Of Pandas and People, is available for students who might be interested in gaining an understanding of what Intelligent Design actually involves.
With respect to any theory, students are encouraged to keep an open mind. The school leaves the discussion of the Origins of Life to individual students and their families. As a Standards-driven district, class instruction focuses upon preparing students to achieve proficiency on Standards-based assessments."
A number of families brought suit against the School Board, leading to the 2005 Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District case in the US District Court. (Trivia time: my then-current phylogeny of theropods was used as part of the evidence by paleontologist Kevin Padian in the trial!) If you have two hours to kill, you can watch an excellent documentary about the trial.
After testimony that included leading figures on both sides, Judge Jones ruled that ID "cannot uncouple itself from its creationist, and thus religious, antecedents" and is not Science. Additionally, it was made very clear in the testimony that although some ID thinkers might keep open the possibility that the Intelligent Designer was not divine, the supporters of the statement in the community and the School Board itself did not consider there to be any distinction between Creationism and ID, and were in fact promoting Young Earth Creationism.
The Dover ruling ground ID in its track, and the movement as such has stalled. But that doesn't mean that evolution deniers have given up. Over the last decade they continue to support "teach the controversy" laws, "strengths and weaknesses" laws, and "academic freedom" laws (which are all updates on the old "balanced treatment" or "equal time" laws). For instance Oklahoma's Senate Bill 320 (the "Science Education and Academic Freedom Act" of 2009, which thankfully died in committee) stated:
Numerous similar laws have been proposed (and occasionally are still on the books) in Louisiana, Tennessee, Colorado, Montana, Missouri, Oklahoma, Arizona, and Indiana.
With all this trouble, many teachers simply want to avoid the problem and don't teach evolution in the schools. Indeed, more teachers themselves believe in some form of ID or theistic evolution than in our scientific understanding. As a result, very few states require teaching about human evolution in the schools.
And so, the legal fights go on.
But what do evolution deniers really believe? And why do they believe it? That is the focus of the next lecture.
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