Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy III - The Appendicular Skeleton

John Merck

The Appendicular Skeleton: The skeleton of the pectoral and pelvic girdles and the limbs that attach to them. These, too, are endochondral except that most vertebrates have dermal elements associated with the pectoral girdle.

Test yourself:

Eryops sp. right forelimb in anterior view

Forelimb details:

Now some detail:

Manus: the technical term for the "hand."

Tetrapod digits are numbered from I to V (with Roman numerals), with I being the most medial when the manus is in quadruped anatomical position. (E.G.: the human thumb.)

Although there is significant variation over the course of evolution, the tetrapod carpus - the set of carpal elements - ancestrally conforms to a strict pattern where the carpals occupy two distinct rows plus a few:

Eryops sp. right hindlimb in anterior view

Hindlimb details:

Pes: the technical term for the "foot."

The ancestral pattern of the tetrapod tarsus is similar: