Faculty Research Interests in Geology

The Department of Geology at the University of Maryland has focused its research efforts in the applications of geochemistry and geophysics to studies of the solid earth and earth surface processes. This focused approach enables participation in various threads of modern and future Earth System Science, as well as developing areas within the Department, which include planetary geology and forensics.Our particular strengths are as follows:

Geochemistry, which involves investigations of low- to high-temperature processes operating from Earth’s surface to it’s core and within the Solar System;

Solid Earth Science, which is the study of the minerals, rocks, and structures that constitute Earth, and the tectonic and other processes by which they are formed and altered

Surficial Processes and Environments, which involves the study of active and past fluxes (and reservoirs) of water, dissolved components, and sediment on Earth’s surface and the interactions of these fluxes with the biosphere and atmosphere; and,

Geophysics, which includes investigations of Earth’s interior structure and dynamics, as well as planetary physics.

These areas are not mutually exclusive, and students are encouraged to develop a program that suits their interests.

Resident Faculty

Richard Ash, Associate Research Scientist, Ph.D. Open University, 1990

My own research interests are in the origin and early evolution of planets and planetary systems. For me this is largely based on the analysis of chondritic meteorites; partially digested leftovers from the formation of the planets in our Solar System.

(301) 405-7504, rdash@umd.edu

Michael Brown, Professor, Ph.D. University of Keele, U.K., 1975

High-T metamorphism, crustal anatexis and melt segregation, ascent and emplacement; granulites and HP/UHT metamorphism; the P-T-t-d evolution and the tectonics of metamorphic belts.

(301) 405-4080, mbrown@umd.edu

Philip Candela, Professor, Ph.D. Harvard University, 1982

Thermodynamics and mass transfer dynamics of magmatic-hydrothermal systems; mineral and resource economics; the role of markets in society; the geology and physical chemistry of shale gas and shale oil extraction; experimental studies of geological materials in the Earth’s upper crust; asbestos geology; mineral deposits in the Appalachians; the formation of granites

(301) 405-2783, candela@umd.edu

Michael Evans, Associate Professor, Ph.D. Columbia University, 1999

High resolution multiproxy paleoclimatology of the late Holocene, with special emphasis on tropical processes, hydrometeorological variations, and global climate change. Modeling of the processes by which environmental forcing is represented in proxy measurements made in biogeochemical climate archives. Analysis of historical climate data sets. Climate field reconstruction from sparse proxy observational networks using techniques derived from objective analysis and Bayesian hierarchical methods. Analysis and modeling of paleoreconstruction uncertainties.

(301) 405-8763, mnevans@umd.edu

James Farquhar, Professor, Ph.D. University of Alberta, 1995

Stable isotope geochemistry: atmosphere-surface interactions,atmospheric evolution, sulfur and oxygen biogeochemistry, meteorite studies, isotopic exchange and thermometry.

(301) 405-5043, jfarquha@umd.edu

Thomas Holtz, Jr., Senior Lecturer, Ph.D. Yale University, 1992

The evolution, functional morphology, biomechanics, and adaptive trends of major groups of extinct vertebrates, especially theropod dinosaurs; phylogenetic reconstruction of late Mesozoic global paleobiogeography and important periods of adaptive radiations in the history of terrestrial life.

(301) 405-4084, tholtz@umd.edu

Alan Kaufman, Professor, Ph.D. University of Indiana, 1990

My research has focused on the determination of changes in the isotopic composition of the oceans through time, by the analysis of stragraphic suites of little-altered carbonate rocks. Thus far, most of these studies have centered around Neoproterozoic (ca. 1000-544 million-year-old) sedimentary successions in Svalbard/East Greenland, Namibia, arctic Canada and Alaska, India, and the western USA. Temporal variations in C and Sr isotopes can be used as stratigraphic tools within and between basins, and through detailed correlations allow us to order key tectonic, biogeochemical, and paleoenvironmental events in Earth history.

(301) 405-0395, kaufman@umd.edu

Sujay Kaushal, Associate Professor, Ph.D. University of Colorado, 2003

Land use and climate impacts on water resources, increased salinization and alkalinization of fresh water, urban watershed continuum approach, urban evolution, watershed restoration, and applications of geochemical tracers to ecology

(301) 405-7048, skaushal@umd.edu

Daniel Lathrop, Professor, Ph.D. University of Texas at Austin, 1991

Turbulence, Geophysical & Astrophysical Magnetic Fields

(301) 405-1594, lathrop@umd.edu

Vedran Lekic, Assistant Professor, Ph.D. University of California, Berkeley, 2009

At the broadest level, I seek to understand the state, dynamics, and dominant processes of the solid Earth, as well as those of other planets and satellites. Accurate seismic imaging is a crucial first step toward this goal. I believe that we stand at a threshold of a transformation in seismology, one enabled by the concomitant proliferation of high-quality array data and the development of accurate wave propagation techniques capable of capturing the effects of realistic Earth structure. For the first time, we have in place the theoretical, computational, and observational infrastructure necessary to constrain Earth structure simultaneously using multiple approaches, and to do so in a self-consistent fashion. My continuing efforts have therefore focused on: 1. Developing and implementing new techniques for imaging structures within the Earth’s mantle, including full waveform modeling; 2. Describing and quantifying the relationship between deep processes and structures and surface tectonics on global and regional scales.

(301) 405-4086, ved@umd.edu

William McDonough, Professor, Ph.D. Australian National University, 1988

Understanding the composition, structure and evolution of the Earth and the other terrestrial planets are dominant themes of my research. The differentiation of the Earth has created 3 separate and distinct reservoirs (i.e., the core, the mantle-crust system, and the atmosphere-hydrosphere system). These reservoirs are in turn themselves internally differentiated and powered in part by radioactively produced energy. Chemical and isotopic studies of terrestrial and meteoritic samples provide insights into the timing and details of the various differentiation processes occurring in these planetary domains.

My expertise is in analytical instrumentation and neutrino geoscience. Using laser ablation systems and plasma mass spectrometers for the chemical and isotopic analyses of samples I work with geologists, biologist, chemists, physicists and members of the US intelligence community. I am developing and improving upon methods of modeling and detecting the Earth’s geoneutrino (electron antineutrino) flux and anti-neutrino detection for nuclear monitoring. With my students we provide chemical and isotopic data that constrain geological processes and data for forensics, nuclear chemistry and archaeology.

(301) 405-5561, mcdonoug@umd.edu

John Merck, Jr., Senior Lecturer, Ph.D. The University of Texas at Austin, 1997

The phylogeny and evolutionary history of the euryapsids, primarily marine reptiles of the Mesozoic Era, including ichthyosaurs, placodonts, and sauropterygians, the empirical testing of cladistic methods of phylogeny reconstruction using digitally simulated phylogenies, and the incorporation of data from CT scans of fossil specimens in the morphological description of fossil taxa.

(301) 405-4379, jmerck@umd.edu

Laurent Montesi, Associate Professor, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2002

My research focuses principally on understanding the patterns of deformation that we see at the surface of the planets of the solar system. I focus mainly on the formation of mountain belts, but rifting is fine too. I am interested in structures found on Earth, Mars, Venus, and the satellites of Jupiter, Ganymede and Europa.

More specifically, I study how these patterns are influenced by the formation of faults, by the localization of deformation on narrow shear zones. I have developed a model that produces regularly-spaced faults in the lithosphere of terrestrial planets and applied to different environments.

(301) 405-7534, montesi@umd.edu

Sarah Penniston-Dorland, Associate Professor, Ph.D. Johns Hopkins University, 2005

I am interested in learning about fluid flow in Earth's crust through the study of the record fluids leave behind in metamorphic and igneous rocks. I collect field data along with mineralogical, chemical, isotopic and textural data, and apply the concepts of equilibrium thermodynamics and mass transport.

(301) 405-6239, sarahpd@umd.edu

Philip Piccoli, Research Scientist, Ph.D. University of Maryland at College Park, 1992

Field studies of silicic igneous rocks; role of accessory phases in granitic systems; microanalysis of rock-forming minerals; geochemistry of fluids associated with plutonic and volcanic systems

(301) 405-6966, piccoli@umd.edu

Karen Prestegaard, Associate Professor, Ph.D. University of California, Berkeley, 1982

Sediment transport and depositional processes in mountain gravel-bed streams; mechanisms of streamflow generation and their variations with watershed scale, geology, and land use; hydrologic behavior of frozen ground; hydrologic consequences of climate change; hydrology of coastal and riparian wetlands.

(301) 405-6982, kpresto@umd.edu

Igor Puchtel, Research Scientist, Ph.D. Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 1992

My research interests center around chemical and thermal evolution of deep Earth and terrestrial planets. I study radiogenic isotope systems, including Sm-Nd, Re-Os, Pt-Os, Lu-Hf, and Hf-W, and lithophile and highly siderophile element abundances in various types of terrestrial and extraterrestrial materials using thermal ionization mass-spectrometry (TIMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS).

(301) 405-4054, ipuchtel@umd.edu

Nicholas Schmerr, Assistant Professor, Ph.D. Arizona State University, 2008

Solid earth geophysics, planetary seismology, field and array seismology, seismic instrumentation, planetary geology, cryospheric processes, numerical modeling of elastic wave propagation, geodynamics, mineral and rock physics (including numerical modeling of melt and ices), the structure, evolution, and dynamics of the crusts, mantles, and cores of terrestrial objects.

My primary research focus lies in deciphering the formation, dynamics, and evolution of planetary surfaces and interiors using the remote sensing tools of seismology. I am extremely interested in how the physical and chemical properties of rocks, ices, and minerals are related to the evolution and dynamics of planetary interiors. My research projects span the Solar System, with current studies investigating seismic problems on Earth, the Moon, Venus, Mars, asteroids, Jupiter's satellites Europa and Io, and Saturn's satellites Enceladus and Titan.

(301) 405-4385, nschmerr@umd.edu

Richard Walker, Professor, Ph.D. S.U.N.Y. Stony Brook, 1984

Geochemical evolution of the Earth's crust and mantle; origin and evolution of early solar system materials, including iron meteorites and chondrites; petrogenesis of granites and granitic pegmatites; petrogenesis of ore systems.

(301) 405-4089, rjwalker@umd.edu

Ann Wylie, Emerita Professor, Ph.D. Columbia University, 1972

Economic geology of Appalachian metal and industrial deposits; mineralogy and human health; the study of ore minerals as petrogenetic indicators; geology and tectonic history of the central Appalachian Piedmont.

(301) 405-4079, awylie@umd.edu

Wenlu Zhu, Associate Professor, Ph.D. Stony Brook University, 1996

Experimental rock physics; laboratory and theoretical studies on deformation and percolation of crustal rocks; transport properties of hydrothermal vent deposits; submarine geomorphology.

(301) 405-1831, wzhu@umd.edu

Affiliate Faculty

Antonio Busalacchi (ESSIC) Affiliate Professor and Director, Ph.D. Florida State University, 1982

Tropical ocean circulation and its role in the coupled climate system; The development and application of numerical models combined with in situ and space-based ocean observations to study the tropical ocean response to surface fluxes of momentum and heat.

(301) 405-5599, tonyb@essic.umd.edu

Bruce James (Environmental Science and Technology) Affiliate Professor and Director, Ph.D. University of Vermont, 1981

Responsible for conducting and supervising graduate students in research on the colloid and aquatic chemistry of soils and its application to environmental quality, chemistry and remediation of chromium-contaminated soils, disposal of waste materials on land, and microbial-chemical redox processes. Areas of specialization include oxidation-reduction processes, heavy metal and aluminum chemistry, trace element speciation and analysis. I also conduct transdisciplinary research on the role of historic soil and water management on the rise, fall, and resilience of ancient civilizations; drawing on the disciplines of ecology, environmental history, and soil science.

(301) 405-8573, brjames@umd.edu

Michael Kearney (Environmental Science and Technology) Affiliate Professor, Ph.D. University of Western Ontario, 1981

Interests include coastal processes and ecology, climate change, and remote sensing of coasts.

(301) 405-4057, kearneym@umd.edu

Derrick Lampkin (Atmospheric and Oceanic Science) Affiliate Assistant Professor, Ph.D.

(301) 405-7797, dlampkin@umd.edu

Fernando Mirales-Wilhelm (Atmospheric and Oceanic Science) Affiliate Professor, Ph.D.

(301) 405-0788, fwilhelm@umd.edu

Raghu Murtugudde (ESSIC) Affiliate Professor, Ph.D. Columbia University, 1994

As an Earth System Scientist, I study the interactions between the physical world and life and train Earth System doctors for taking the pulse of the planet, diagnose what ails the planet and prescribe cures and preventive measures. Observations of nature and life are combined with computer models to understand the functioning of the Earth System and to predict trajectories of its future evolution. These predictions include global and regional climate and its impacts in the coming days to decades on Earth System components such as terrestrial and marine biospheres, air quality, pathogens in the air and in water . The scenarios are then provided as interactive decision-support information to stakeholders ranging from resource managers, health workers, and policy makers to the general public. The ultimate goal is to continuously monitor the functioning of the Earth System and sustainably navigate its future evolution with designer Earth System forecasts.

(301) 314-2622, ragu@essic.umd.edu

Jessica Sunshine (Astronomy) Affiliate Professor, Ph.D.

My research focuses on the use of spectroscopy to determine the composition of various Solar System objects including: comets, asteroids, meteorites, and the Moon.

(301) 405-1045, jess@astro.umd.edu

Ning Zeng (Atmospheric and Oceanic Science) Affiliate Associate Professor, Ph.D. University of Arizona, 1995

My general research interests are in the field of climate change and climate variability on time scales ranging from seasonal-interannual to glacial-interglacial cycles. My approach is to study the Earth system as a whole, focusing on the interactions among various components, in particular, the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and the biosphere. Currently my research covers two different but inter-connected areas: carbon cycle-climate interaction and the modeling of atmosphere-land-vegetation-ocean system. I also conduct research in the technical solutions and policy implications of climate change.

(301) 405-5377, zeng@atmos.umd.edu