Welcome to the 3-dimensional Reference Earth Model Webpage!
REM-3D is a project funded by the National Science Foundation and carried out by Raj Moulik, Ved Lekic, Barbara Romanowicz, and Adam Dziewonski.
If you have questions, please do not hesitate to contact us. You might find the answer you are looking for in our new FAQ section.
The aim of the project is to develop a three-dimensional seismic reference model (REM-3D) for the Earth’s mantle, parameterized in terms of shear wavespeed (Vs), compressional wavespeed (Vp), density (ρ), and the 3 additional parameters representing radial anisotropy. Unlike previous reference models of Earth structure, REM-3D will come with uncertainty estimates. This website will, in due time, host:
Input and Guidance from the Deep Earth Community
In order to maximize the likelihood of success and utility to the broader deep Earth community, the REM-3D project receives input from two advisory working groups, one focused on the reference dataset, and the other on the reference model. Additionally, the project has been modified according to input from a CIDER sponsored workshop held at the University of Maryland, College Park in the Spring of 2013.
Workshop: The summary recommendations of the CIDER REM-3D Workshop can be read here.
Working Groups: As of Summer 2015, the reference dataset working group has been constituted and comprises the following members: Eric Debayle, Arwen Deuss, Göran Ekström, Guy Masters, Jeroen Ritsema, Karin Sigloch.
The reference model working group will be set up by Summer 2016.
If you are interested in contributing to the project with datasets, suggestions, or advice, feel free to e-mail us at:
Goals of Project
We hope that REM-3D will benefit the broader scientific community by facilitating:
The construction of a community-contributed reference dataset will make possible the identification of anomalous seismic wave travel times, surface wave dispersion, normal mode splitting, and waveform features. Furthermore, the tools for predicting seismic observables from input structures that we will create will enable direct evaluation of potential velocity structures predicted by mineral physics and geodynamics experiments and calculations.
Nontechnical explanation of broader significance and importance:
Elastic properties of the Earth’s interior (e.g. density, rigidity, compressibility, etc.) vary with location due to changes in temperature, pressure, composition, and flow. In the 20th century, Earth scientists have used seismic waves emitted by earthquakes and explosions to develop models of how Earth properties vary with depth. Community reference models that grew out of these efforts have proven indispensable in earthquake location, imaging of interior structure, understanding material properties under extreme conditions, and as a reference in other fields, such as particle physics and astronomy. Over the past three decades, more sophisticated efforts by seismologists across the gl